Graphic is from Natalie Green Tessie's site:
Autoimmune problems seem to be the biggest health issue in the Havanese, which is perfectly understandable considering that there were so few dogs used to rebuild the breed. Lack of genetic diversity increases the chance of autoimmune problems in any mammal and especially in dogs. There are many research articles published to support this position, and a list will be published at the end of this page.
We are very lucky because of the separate establishment of the breed in Cuba and the open stud book there. The dogs from there introduced much needed new genetic material into our gene pool. Now, our job as breeders is to protect this diversity and ensure that we do not lose this wonderful gift that has been given to us.
Looking at the above graph helps clarify how this testing can be applied in any breeding. The names of potential mates are listed in reverse order from the least related (catagory10) down to the most related (category 1) which would be brothers, sisters and so on. All categories did not fit on the page.
This information is all you need to understand unless you want to delve into the mathematical calculations leading to the numbers in each column. Each is a slightly different way of comparing the genetic makeup of each dog and calculating just how similar or different each dog is compared to the population of Havanese as a whole.
Of course, you would pick the mate from the list who had all the needed traits such as health, good front, tail set, etc., etc. Then choose a mate who is as unrelated as possible. This does not have to be a dog in category 10, but simply the most unrelated dog that suits your breeding goals.
Testing kits are available worldwide from UCDavis (brushes, no blood draw):
HOW TO ORDER THIS TEST- STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS
STEP 1: If you don't have an account yet click on this next link to create one. UCDavis
Once you have created your account, you'll need to confirm it via the email you will get from UCDavis. This email will have the subject: 'Your VGL Account Activation information'.
STEP 2: Follow this link and click on ORDER TEST KIT (at the bottom of the overview section). This will take you to the page where you can enter your dog's info. STEP2
Zoos (would be similar to canine genetics since zoos are also a closed population)